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Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation reduces the expression of genes involved in inflammation and lipid metabolism and upregulates the expression of genes related to insulin metabolism in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), observed a study epublished in September 2017. PCOS is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and metabolic alterations such as insulin resistance and lipid imbalances. Depending on the defined criteria of the disorder, approximately 4% to 12% of reproductive-age women in the US suffer from PCOS.

The double-blind, placebo-controlled study included 40 women with PCOS who were randomized to receive either 100 mg/day CoQ10 or a placebo for 12 weeks. Researchers studied white blood cell samples from the participants to evaluate gene expression involved in insulin and lipid metabolism and inflammation. 

CoQ10 supplementation was associated with downregulated gene expression of oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LDLR) compared with placebo. Compared with the placebo group, women given CoQ10 experienced increased gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, which is involved in glucose regulation. Furthermore, CoQ10 supplementation resulted in reduced expression of genes involved in production of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. The study authors concluded, "Overall, CoQ10 intake for 12 weeks in PCOS women significantly improved gene expression of LDLR, PPAR-γ, IL-1, IL-8, and TNF-α."

Rahmani E, et al. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2017:1-6.

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